Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav – The Maratha War of Independence (1680 – 1707)

The long war between the Mughals and Marathas which had started around the time Chhatrapati Shivaji died, had continued for nine long years under Chhatrapati Sambhaji. (Read that part here ) . With his death , the war entered a new critical phase. New leaders arose such as  Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav , Ramchandrapant Amatya, Chhatrapati Rajaram. The war of attrition continued. Two names out of many shining examples stood out – Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. Although they had joined Maratha armies almost a decade before, it was the death of Hambirrao Mohite that elevated them to positions of importance. The death of Chhatrapati Sambhaji made them crucial to the Maratha cause.  The map shows locations of various battles between Marathas and Mughals during those years.

A list of battles fought follows the map

Rajaram

A list of battles :

1.  Death of Chhatrapati Sambhaji  , 1689

2. Rajgad falls to Mughals , 1689

3. Raigad captured by Mughals , 1689

4.  Panhala captured by Mughals , 1689

5. Santaji v/s Mughals , Koregaon . 1689

6. Santaji v/s Sarja Khan , Satara , 1690

7. Rupaji Bhosale v/s Siddi Abdul Qadir , Lakhisar , 1690

8. Torna recaptured – Shankar Narayan Gandekar, 1690

9. Pratapgarh  recaptured – Shankar Narayan , 1690

10. Rajgarh recaptured – Shankar Narayan , 1690

11. Rohida recaptured – Shankar Narayan Gandekar, 1690

12.Ramchandrapant v/s Mughals , Sangameshwar , 1690

13. Ramchandrapant v/s Mughals , Vasantgad , 1690

14. Santaji , Dhanaji v/s Khan Jaman Fateh Jang .

15. Santaji , Dhanaji v/s Latfullah Khan , 1690

16. Santaji , Dhanaji v/s Mughals , Belgaum , 1690

17. Marathas v/s Matlab Khan , Dharwar , 1690

18. Panhala recaptured – Ramchandrapant , 1692

19. Panhala. Siege . Muizuddin Khan , 1692 – 1694

20. Santaji v/s Ali Mardan Khan , Kanjivaram , 1692

21. Dhanaji v/s Ismail Khan Maka , Jinji , 1692

22. Santaji v/s Qasim Khan , Kaveripaak , 1692

23. Santaji v/s Zulfiqar Khan , Jinji , 1693

24. Amritrao Nimbalkar v/s Mughals , Bhima river , 1693

25. Dhanaji , Shankaraji , Ramchandrapant v/s Muizuddin Khan , Panhala , 1693

26. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan , Mandavgad , 1693

27. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan , Vikramhalli , 1693

28. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan, Alur , 1693

29.  Panhala. Siege. Latfullah Khan. 1694-1695

30. Santaji v/s Matlab Khan

31. Shankaraji v/s Mughals , Kari , 1694

32. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan , Panur, 1694

33. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan , Naldurg , 1694

34. Marathas v/s Mughals , Khatau , 1694

35 Santaji v/s Hamid ud Din , Fatullah Khan , 1695

36 Panhala. Siege . Bidar Bakht  (1695 / 1696)

37. Zulfiqar Khan v/s Marathas. Vellore , 1695

38. Dhanaji v/s Zulfiqar Khan , Vellore , 1695

39. Dhanaji v/s Mughals, Tiruvadi , 1696

40. Santaji v/s Zulfiqar Khan , Arni , 1696

41. Santaji , Barmappa Nayak v/s Mughals , Chitaldurg , 1696

42. Santaji , Barmappa Nayak v/s Mughals , Dodderi , 1696

43. Santaji v/s Himmat Khan , Basavapatnam. Himmat Khan killed. 1696

44. Santaji v/s Hamid ud Din Khan , Basavapatnam

45. Dhanaji v/s Bidar Bakht , Paranda , 1698

46. Ranoji Ghorpade v/s Hamid ud Din Khan , Kararabad, 1698

47. Nemaji Shinde v/s Mughals , Thalner, 1699

48. Dhanaji , Parsoji Bhosale , Nemaji Shinde v/s Mughals , Brahmapuri , 1699

49. Chhatrapati Rajaram v/s Mughals , Jalna , 1699

50. Chhatrapati Rajaram v/s Mughals , Paithan , 1699

51. Dhanaji v/s Zulfiqar Khan ,1699

52. Dhanaji v/s Mughals , Pandharpur , 1699

53. Nemaji Shinde v/s Mughals , Nandurbar , 1699

54. Shankar Narayan v/s Sarja Khan , Pune , 1699

55. Dhanaji , Hanumant Rao v/s Nusrat Jung , Maasur , 1700

56. Dhanaji v/s Mughals , Khanapur , 1700

57. Dhanaji v/s Nusrat Jung , Undirgaon , 1700

58. Siege of Satara under Aurangzeb. Prayagji Phanse v/s Mughals

59. Hanumant Rao v/s Ikhlas Khan , Muhammad Yar , Satara , 1700.

60. Marathas v/s Siddi Yakut , Anjanvel , 1700

61. Dhanaji , Ranoji Shinde v/s Nusrat Jung , Hamid ud Din , 1700

62. Satara falls. Renamed ” Azamtara” , 1700

63. Siege of Parali under Fatullah Khan.

64. Parali falls , renamed ” Nauras Tara”

65. Hanumant Rao v/s Mughals , Khatau , 1700

66. Ranoji Ghorpade v/s Mughals , Bageshwari , 1700

67. Siege of Panhala under Aurangzeb , 1701

68. Dhanaji v/s Mughals , Panhala , 1701

69. Dhanaji v/s Mughals , Raibagh

70 Panhala taken by Aurangzeb.

71. Siege of Vishalgad under Aurangzeb , 1702 . Fall of Vishalgad. Renamed ” Sakherlena”

72. Siege of Sinhagad under Aurangzeb. Fall of Sinhagad. Renamed ” Bakshindabaksh”              1703

73. Rajgad taken by Aurangzeb. Renamed ”  Nabishabad ” , 1704

74.  Torna taken by Aurangzeb. Renamed ” Futuhulghaib” , 1704

75. Satara , Parali retaken by Parshuram Trimbak , 1704

76. Rajgad , Torna , Sinhagad retaken by Shankar Narayan , 1705

77. Panhala , Vishalgad retaken by Parshuram Trimbak , 1705

78. Nemaji Shinde v/s Mughals , Malwa (Sironj) , 1705

79. Khanderrao Dabhade v/s Mohd Beg Khan , Gujarat , 1705

80. Dhanaji Jadhav , Pirya Nayak v/s Aurangzeb , Wakhinkhera , 1706

81. Dhanaji Jadhav v/s Mughals , Bahadurpur , 1706

82. Dhanaji Jadhav v/s Mughals , Ahmednagar , 1706

83. Death of Aurangzeb , 1707

  • Of the grand campaign to take forts, only Torna was actually captured by scaling its walls. The remainder were sold and evacuated one by one  by the Marathas when they reckoned that fighting was turning out to be more expensive. Within two years all the forts had been retaken.———————————————————————————————————————————
    The author of this article is Aneesh Gokhale , a published author of two books. His books on Maratha history and Lachit Barphukan can be purchased at Amazon India
    He has also written articles for DNA , Swarajya Mag and Indiafacts among other publications.
    ———————————————————————————————————————————
    References :

    1. History of Aurangzeb , Vol 5 – Sarkar

  • 2. Shivaji and His Lines – Sardesai
  • 3. A History of Maratha people – Kincaid# Campaigns in the Konkan which followed somewhat different trajectory will be covered in a different article. 

 

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